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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 36-39

Detection of antinuclear antibodies in oncology from slide to multiplexing: An overview

1 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Oncquest, Dr G Path Labs, New Delhi, India
3 Dr. Anita's Laboratories, Karnal, Haryana, India
4 Department of Clinical Pathology, Ahhalia Hospital Musaffah Industrial, Abu Dhabi, UAE
5 Centre for Academic Research, HCG Cancer Center, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Amrit Kaur Kaler
Consultant Molecular Pathologist, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpo.jpo_11_22

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Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are autoantibodies considered as the immune biomarkers of systemic autoimmune diseases. ANAs are directed against antigens of the cell nucleus and are named after their biochemical characteristics (deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA], histones, ribonucleoprotiens), the disease is associated with the corresponding autoantibody, e.g., Sjögren syndrome antigen A [SS-A] and Systemic Sclerosis (SS-B); progressive systemic sclerosis, polymyositis, or occasionally after the patient in whom the corresponding antibody was first detected (Sm, Ro, La). Positive ANA can also be used as an aid to early diagnosis of solid tumors and prognosis in hematological malignancies such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. Positive ANA has been found in the sera from patients with head and neck, lung, breast cancers by multiple studies. Most commonly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) frequently present with autoimmune disorders (AIDs) which include autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), immune thrombocytopenia, pure red cell aplasia and autoimmune granulocytopenia, and nonhematological AIDs such as paraneoplastic pemphigus, neuropathies, SS, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. The presence of AIHA was previously demonstrated to be a poor prognostic indicator and also proved the negative survival impact of positive direct antiglobulin test on CLL patients.

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